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Childhelp Speak Up Be Safe Research Library

The content and delivery of all Childhelp Speak Up Be Safe lessons are based on best practices from research in child development, learning styles, social psychology, and child abuse prevention. If you are interested in learning more about these research foundations of the curriculum, here are suggested readings, some of which detail research that informed the original expansion of the curriculum and some used in later updates and development.

The Childhelp Speak Up Be Safe program has been rated as having Promising Research Evidence by the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare (CEBC) and is listed in its Program Registry.

Child Welfare

Creating Community Responsibility for Child Protection – Possibilities and Challenges – Daro, D., and Dodge, K., 2009

Fostering Secure Attachment in Infants in Maltreating Families Through Preventative Interventions

Home Visitation: Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations – Daro, D. 2006

How neighborhoods influence child maltreatment: A review of the literature and alternative pathways – Coulton, C. J. et al.

Preventing adverse childhood experiencesLeveraging the best available evidence –Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019

Racial Bias in Child Protection, A Comparison of Competing Explanations Using National Data – Drake, B., et al., March 2011


Attachment in Institutionalized and Community Children in Romania – Zeanah, C. H., et al., September/October 2005

The Bioecological Model of Human Development, Chapter 14 – Bronfenbrenner, U. and et al., 2006

Human Trafficking

2019 Data Report: The US National Human Trafficking Hotline – Polaris Project, 2020

Global Report on Trafficking in Persons – United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2020

Human Trafficking in America’s Schools – US Department of Education, American Institutes for Research, National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments (NCSSLE), January 2021

Human trafficking prevalence and child welfare risk factors among homeless youth: A multi-city study – The Field Center, January 2018

Special Issues Facing Juvenile Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States – US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime, December 2015

Trading Sex and Sexual Exploitation among High School Students: Data from the 2019 Minnesota Student Survey – MN Departments of Education, Health, Human Services, and Public Safety, January 2020

Trafficking in Persons Report, 20th Edition – US Department of State, June 2020

US Department of Education Use Case: Human Trafficking Framework for Instructional Programming in Schools – US Department of Education’s Office of Safe and Healthy Students, 2017

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) – US Government Information, reauthorized 2019

Who Buys Sex – Demand Abolition, November 2018

Youth involvement in the sex trade: A national study – Swaner, R., et al., 2016


Child and Adult Outcomes of Chronic Child Maltreatment – Jonson-Reid, M. et al., May 2012

Child Maltreatment and the Transition to Adult-Based Medical and Mental-Health Care – January 2011

Developmental Victimology: The Comprehensive Study of Childhood Victimizations – Finkelhor, D., 2007

National Survey of Adolescents in the United States – Kilpatrick, D. G., and B. E. Saunders, 1995

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Abused and Neglected Children Grown Up – Widom, C. S., August 1999

Prevalence and Consequences of Child Victimization, Results from the National Survey of Adolescents – Kilpatrick, D. G., July 1999

The Effects of Child Maltreatment and Inherited Liability on Antisocial Development – Jonson-Reid, M., el al., April 2010

The Effects of Maltreatment and Neuroendocrine Regulation on Memory Performance – Cicchetti, D. et al., 2010

The Long-Term Consequences of Maltreatment in the Early Years – Egeland, B., et al., 2002

Violence and Risk of PTSD, Major Depression, Substance Abuse or Dependence, and Comorbidity – Kilpatrick, D. G., and Saunders, B.E., 2003

Why Have Child Maltreatment and Child Victimization Declined? – Finkelhor, D., and Jones, L., 2006


Academic, Trauma, and Prevention Program Research – Child Safety Matters – Monique Burr Foundation

Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial – Prinz, R., et al., January 2009

Prevent Child Abuse Vermont’s Sexual Abuse Free Environments for Teens (SAFE-T) Program

Research Review, Evidence-Based Programs and Practices: What Does It All Mean? – Children’s Services Council – September 2007

School-Based Child Maltreatment Programs – March 2003

Theoretical, Scientific and Clinical Foundations of the Triple P‐Positive Parenting Program: A Population Approach to the Promotion of Parenting Competence – Sanders, M. R., et al., 2003

Treating Conduct Problems and Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children: The Dina Dinosaur Treatment Program – Webster-Stratton, C., and Reid, M. J., January 2003

Knowledge Gains Following a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program Among Urban Students: A Cluster-Randomized Evaluation – Pulido, M. -et al. – July 2015


Adopting a population-level approach to parenting and family support interventions – Prinz, R. J., and Sanders, M. R., January 2007

Designing research to study the effects of institutionalization on brain and behavioral development: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project – Zeanah, C. H., et al., 2003

Types of Abuse

Child-Focused Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs – Crime and Misconduct Commission, Queensland – June 2004

Examination of a Conceptual Model of Child Neglect – Dubowitz, H., et al., May 2005

Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS–4) – Report to Congress – Sedlak, A. J., et al., 2010

Measuring Bullying Victimization, Perpetration, and Bystander Experiences – Center for Disease Control

Measuring poly-victimization using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire – Finkelhor, D., et al., 2005

New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research Book, Extracted Pages – National Academy of Sciences 2013

Physical Abuse Amplifies Attention to Threat – Shackman, J. E., et al., 2007